State relationships with organisations

Where can state regulations and guidelines of the state economic activities or of the organisations be found?

Homegrown Red Fresh Tomato In A Garden.

This page contains two types of sources. Firstly, sources explicitly mentioned on the previous pages (“what?”, “why?” and “how?”), with their corresponding hyperlinks for further consultation, are arranged by the institution that released. Secondly, there is a bibliography of sources consulted to draft the tool, which can be useful for further inquiry about the topic.

United Nations

UN Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action (1993)

UNECE Guidebook on Promoting Good Governance in PPPs (2008)

One Planet Network (2012)

UN 10-Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production (10YFP) (2012)

Procura+ European Sustainable Procurement Network

Procura + Manual: A Guide to Implementing  Sustainable Procurement (2016)

Sustainability of Supply Chains and Sustainable Public Procurement (2014)

UNEP Guidelines for Social Life Cycle Assessment of Products (2009)

UNEP Global Review of Sustainable Public Procurement (2017)

UN CSECR General Comment 24 on state obligations under the international covenant on economic, social and cultural rights in the context of business activities (2017)

The World Bank

The Reference Guide

The IFC stakeholder engagement handbook (2007)

The European Commission guidelines on stakeholder consultation (2015)

World Bank procuring infrastructure public-private partnerships report: assessing government capability to prepare, procure, and manage PPPs (2018)

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

OECD Recommendation for Further Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions (2009)

OECD Recommendation of the Council on Principles for Public Governance of Public-Private Partnerships (2012)

 OECD Guidelines on the Protection of Privacy and Transborder Flows of Personal Data (2013)

Recommendation of the Council on Principles for Public Governance of Public-Private Partnerships

OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises 2015

Council of Europe (CoE)

Recommendation CM/Rec(2016)3 of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on human rights and business and its Explanatory Memorandum.


CoE/Greco: Anti-corruption Guidelines

Twenty Guiding Principles against Corruption (Resolution (97) 24)

Recommendation on Codes of Conduct for Public Officials (Recommendation R(2000)10)

 European Union (EU)
Hard law

Protocol Nr 26 on Services of General Interest


Public procurement

Sustainable Public Procurement EU Directive 2014/24/EU.

REACH Regulation (EC) 1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), establishing a European Chemicals Agency

Directive 2014/23/EU on the award of concession contracts

Directive 2014/25/EU on procurement by entities operating in the water, energy, transport and postal services sectors

Directive 2006/32/CE on energy efficiency

Directive 2012/27/UE on the standards for central government's procurement of supplies, services and works.

Renewable Energy Directive, 2009/28/EU



Regulation (EC) 272/2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures

EU EcolabelCommission Regulation (EU) 782/2013

Regulation (EC) 1221/2009 on the voluntary participation by organisations in a Community eco-management and audit scheme EMAS.

Directive 2005/29/EC on unfair commercial practices 



Directive 2011/92/EU on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment.

Directive 97/11/EC in line with the UN ECE Espoo Convention on EIA in a Transboundary Context.

Soft law

Commission Communication of 185/2000: "Integrating environment and sustainable development into economic and development cooperation policy - elements of a comprehensive strategy".

Staff Working Document on Implementing the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights – State of Play (2015)

The EU Better Regulation Guidelines and Toolbox and the “Fundamental Rights Check List”.

Buying Social: A Guide to Taking Account of Social Considerations in Public Procurement. (2010)

Financing services of general interest in compliance with EU rules (2011)

Buying Green! - A Handbook on green public procurement  (2016)

EU guide on data protection (2018)

Environmental impact  assessment of projects: Guidance on screening (2017)

Environmental Impact Assessment of Projects: Guidance on Scoping (2017)

Environmental impact assessment of projects: Guidance on the preparation of  the environmental impact assessment report (2017)

EC’s Action Plan on Financing Sustainable Growth (2018)

Final report of the High Level Expert Group on Sustainable Finance (2018)



Federal level
Public procurement

The law on sustainable public procurement

Global Lead City Network on Sustainable Procurement

Guides des achats durables/Gids voor duurzame aankopen


Data Protection

Brochure: in zeven stappen naar gegevensbescherming in het onderwijs

Principes du Règlement général sur la protection des données (RGPD): Un nouveau vent, pas un ouragan! (2018)

Beginselen van de Algemene Verordening Gegevensbescherming (AVG) Nieuwe wind, geen orkaan! (2018)

De minimale essentiële elementen die een dpo-opleiding moet bevatten (2018)

EU GDPR "Data protection impact assessment" (2018)

Een gids om kleine en middelgrote ondernemingen (KMO’s) voor te bereiden op de Algemene Verordening Gegevensbescherming (Nederlands) (2018)

GDPR compliance is actually quite simple (Engels) (2018)


Access to remedy

Booklet on state based mechanisms for business related human rights abuses in Belgium (2018)


Corporate social responsibility (CSR)

Corporate social responsibility (responsible business)

Federal policy on energy performance



Les labels sous la loupe ! guide de défrichage pour éco-consommateur

Guide des labels de la consommation durable/Jouw gids door het bos van duurzaamheidslabels


Protection of the right to equality and non-discrimination

Centre interfederal pour l’egalite des chances et la lutte contre le racisme et les discriminations

les signes d’appartenance convictionnelle etat des lieux et pistes de travail

eDiv Formation en ligne sur les lois antidiscrimination

Brochure 2009 : Discriminations sur le marché d’emploi


Fair Trade

Fair trade in war zones

Fair and sustainable trade. So many labels and guarantee systems. What should I choose for my products?


 SDG manual for government organisations leaving no one behind… (2018)


Public procurement

Het Plan Overheidsopdrachten 2016-2020 (externe website).

City of Ghent (Belgium) Sustainable Procurement Profile

Toolbox Sociaal Verantwoorde Werkkledij Een gids voor publieke aankopers

Praktijkgids over aankopen met sociale impact

Informatie en modelclausules om een voorbehoud voor de sociale economie te realiseren.

Praktijkgids sociaal aankopen voor lokale besturen


Achats publics durables (Boite à outils )

Guidelines from non-state organisations

ISO 20400 on sustainable procurement

Responsible public procurement

Somo: Sustainable finance in new EU legislation: focus on climate investment (2018)

  • Amann, M., K. Roehrich, J., Eßig, M., & Harland, C. (2014). Driving sustainable supply chain management in the public sector: The importance of public procurement in the European Union. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal19(3), 351-366.
  • Bayot, B., Cayrol, A., & Marchand, A. (2011). L'investissement socialement responsable en Belgique.
  • Kahlenborn, W., Moser, C., Frijdal, J., & Essig, M. (2011). Strategic Use of Public Procurement in Europe. Final Report to the European Commission (p. 145). MARKT/2010/02/C, Berlin: adelphi.
  • Caponetti, L., & Demertzis, V. (2016). Services publics et missions de service public en Belgique–Etat des lieux (No. 1612). CIRIEC-Université de Liège.
  • Cortesi, G. A. (2017). ICSID Jurisdiction with Regard to State-Owned Enterprises–Moving Toward an Approach Based on General International Law. The Law & Practice of International Courts and Tribunals16(1), 108-138.
  • De Schutter, O., Ramasastry, A., Taylor, M. B., & Thompson, R. C. (2012). Human Rights Due Diligence: The Role of States. Human Rights in Business. http://humanrightsinbusiness. eu/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/De-Schutter-et-al.-Human-Rights-Due-Diligence-The-Role-of-States. pdf.
  • D'Hollander, D., & Marx, A. (2014). Strengthening private certification systems through public regulation: The case of sustainable public procurement. Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal5(1), 2-21.
  • Jaehrling, K., Johnson, M., Larsen, T. P., Refslund, B., & Grimshaw, D. (2018). Tackling precarious work in public supply chains: A comparison of local government procurement policies in Denmark, Germany and the UK. Work, Employment and Society32(3), 546-563.
  • Jomo, K. S., Chowdhury, A., Sharma, K., & Platz, D. (2016). Public-private partnerships and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: fit for purpose?. New York: UN, Department of Economic and Social Affairs.
  • Lizarazo Rodriguez, L. (2017). UNGP on business and human rights in Belgium: state-based judicial mechanisms and state-based nonjudicial grievance mechanisms, with special emphasis on the barriers to access to remedy measures, FIDO, Brussels.
  • Miankenda A., (2013), De Duurzame Ontwikkeling in de Overheidsopdrachten, Cel Aankoop Beleid en Advies http://www.publicprocurement.be/nl/duurzame-overheidopdrachten
  • Multi-stakeholder Dialogue on Environmental claims (2016) Compliance Criteria on Environmental Claims: Multi-stakeholder advice to support the implementation/application of the Unfair Commercial Practices.
  • Noville, S. (2016). Le régime spécifique des entreprises publiques autonomes, plus particulièrement des rémunérations de leurs dirigeants : un équilibre difficile entre liberté et contrôle.
  • Re-Bel initiative (2015) Corruption in today’s Belgium, http://www.rethinkingbelgium.eu/rebel-initiative-files/ebooks/ebook-17/Re-Bel-e-book-17.pdf
  • Steurer, R., Martinuzzi, A., & Margula, S. (2012). Public policies on CSR in Europe: Themes, instruments, and regional differences. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management19(4), 206-227.
  • Schoenmaekers, S. L. T. (2015). The role of SMEs in promoting sustainable procurement. In Sustainable public procurement under EU law. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wiesbrock, A. (2016). Socially responsible public procurement, European value or national choice?, Sustainable public procurement under EU law.
  • Witjes, S., & Lozano, R. (2016). Towards a more Circular Economy: Proposing a framework linking sustainable public procurement and sustainable business models. Resources, Conservation and Recycling112, 37-44.
  • World Bank (2018) Procuring Infrastructure Public-Private Partnerships: Assessing Government Capability to Prepare, Procure, and Manage PPPs